Thomas & Collier Research

Research and Evaluation

in Dual Language Education

Professional Journal Articles

Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2017). Validating the power of bilingual schooling: Thirty-two years of large-scale, longitudinal research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37, 1-15. PDF



This chapter summarizes the findings of 32 years of research from all of our longitudinal studies to date, conducted in 36 school districts in 16 U.S. states, more than 7.5 million student records analyzed, following English learners (of all language backgrounds) as far as Grades K-12. These studies are very generalizable to all regions and contexts of the United States and have been replicated in other countries, answering questions regarding program effectiveness for policymakers in education. We have shown that English-only and transitional bilingual programs of short duration only close about half of the achievement gap between English learners and native English speakers, while high-quality, long-term bilingual programs close all of the gap after 5-6 years of schooling through the students’ first and second languages (L1 and L2). In addition, our studies answer the linguistic question of how long it takes student groups to reach grade-level achievement in their L2, and we have developed and refined our theoretical Prism model by collecting and analyzing program effectiveness data, basing the Prism model on our empirical findings.



Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (2011). Drs. Thomas and Collier share the educational implications of their research on dual language programs. ESL Globe, 8(1), 1-2. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2010). Helping your English learners in spite of No Child Left Behind. Teachers College Record, March 17, 2010. ID#15937. PDF



Collier, V.P., Thomas, W.P., & Tinajero, J.V. (2006). From remediation to enrichment: Transforming Texas schools through dual language education. TABE Journal, 9(1), 23-34. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2005). The beauty of dual language education. TABE Journal, 8(1), 1-6. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2004). The astounding effectiveness of dual language education for all. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 2(1), 1-20. PDF



Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (2003). The multiple benefits of dual language. Educational Leadership, 61(2), 61-64. PDF



Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V.P. (2003). Reforming education policies for English learners: Research evidence from U.S. schools. The Multilingual Educator, 4(1), 16-19. Covina, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2002). Reforming education policies for English learners means better schools for all. The State Education Standard, 3(1), 30-36. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Boards of Education. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2001). Educating linguistically and culturally diverse students in correctional settings. The Journal of Correctional Education, 52(2), 68-73. ERIC Document #EJ627570 PDF



Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (1999). Accelerated schooling for English language learners. Educational Leadership, 56(7), 46-49. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (1999). Making U.S. schools effective for English language learners, Parts 1-3. TESOL Matters, 9(4, 5, 6), 1, 6. PDF



Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (1997). Two languages are better than one. Educational Leadership, 55(4), 23-26. PDF



Collier, V.P. (1995). Acquiring a second language for school. Directions in Language and Education, 1(4). Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. PDF



Thomas, W.P., Collier, V.P., & Abbott, M. (1993). Academic achievement through Japanese, Spanish, or French: The first two years of partial immersion. Modern Language Journal, 77, 170-179. PDF



Collier, V.P. (1992). A synthesis of studies examining long-term language minority student data on academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 16(1-2), 187-212. PDF



Thomas, W.P. (1992). An analysis of the research methodology of the Ramirez study. Bilingual Research Journal, 16(1-2), 213-245. PDF



Collier, V.P. (1992). The Canadian bilingual immersion debate: A synthesis of research findings. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14(1), 87-97. PDF



Collier, V.P. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in second language. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 509-531. PDF



Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (1989). How quickly can immigrants become proficient in school English? Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 5, 26-38. PDF



Collier, V.P. (1988). The effect of age on acquisition of a second language for school. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. PDF



Collier, V.P. (1987). Age and rate of acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 617-641. PDF


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